Examples Of Inductive Essays [UPD]
There are several ways to present information when writing, including those that employ inductive and deductive reasoning. The difference can be stated simply:
examples of inductive essays
Unlike in a deductive essay, inductive texts explore the topic without arguing for the correctness of the hypothesis. Here you will provide evidence first and suggest your reasoning only in the concluding paragraph. In terms of structure, you move from the particular cases to the general principle.
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We can see below that the main summarising idea of the whole paragraph is found in the last sentence. The paragraph begins with the example and builds up illustrative support for the main point which is summarised in the highlighted sentence. This is an inductive style of writing.
Table of contentsWhat is inductive reasoning?
Inductive reasoning in research
Types of inductive reasoning
Inductive vs. deductive reasoning
Frequently asked questions about inductive reasoning
In inductive research, you start by making observations or gathering data. Then, you take a broad view of your data and search for patterns. Finally, you make general conclusions that you might incorporate into theories.
You begin by using qualitative methods to explore the research topic, taking an inductive reasoning approach. You collect observations by interviewing workers on the subject and analyze the data to spot any patterns. Then, you develop a theory to test in a follow-up study.
In inductive research, you start by making observations or gathering data. Then, you take a broad scan of your data and search for patterns. Finally, you make general conclusions that you might incorporate into theories.
The main difference between inductive and deductive reasoning is that inductive reasoning aims at developing a theory while deductive reasoning aims at testing an existing theory.
Table of contentsInductive research approach
Deductive research approach
Combining inductive and deductive research
Frequently asked questions about inductive vs deductive reasoning
When conducting deductive research, you always start with a theory. This is usually the result of inductive research. Reasoning deductively means testing these theories. Remember that if there is no theory yet, you cannot conduct deductive research.
Many scientists conducting a larger research project begin with an inductive study. This helps them develop a relevant research topic and construct a strong working theory. The inductive study is followed up with deductive research to confirm or invalidate the conclusion. This can help you formulate a more structured project, and better mitigate the risk of research bias creeping into your work.
Inductive reasoning (also called induction) involves forming general theories from specific observations. Observing something happen repeatedly and concluding that it will happen again in the same way is an example of inductive reasoning. Deductive reasoning (also called deduction) involves forming specific conclusions from general premises, as in: everyone in this class is an English major; Jesse is in this class; therefore, Jesse is an English major.
The term inductive reasoning refers to reasoning that takes specific information and makes a broader generalization that's considered probable while still remaining open to the fact that the conclusion may not be 100% guaranteed.
In other words, you're making an educated or informed guess based on the information or data that you have. It might sound right, but that doesn't mean it is right. Together, let's explore some examples of inductive reasoning. You'll quickly see what it's all about.
As you can see, inductive reasoning borders on high probability. But, that doesn't make it necessarily factual. While you're at it, consider the sister to inductive reasoning: deductive reasoning. It's another form of logic that will help you draw valid conclusions.To test your facts, you might want to consider formulating your own hypothesis. Then, you can test it by following these easy steps.
An inductive argument is very different than a deductive argument. Like a deductive argument, an inductive argument has premises and a conclusion. They differ because deductive arguments rely upon the rules of logic (and can be either valid or invalid, depending upon whether they follows these rules or fail to do so), while inductive arguments do not.
Just because an inductive argument fails to be valid does not mean that it is irrational. In fact, some philosophers, most notably P. F. Strawson, have argued that induction is a necessary part of being rational. Inductive arguments are used when one wishes to present an argument, but does not, or in some cases cannot, evince a necessary connection between the premises and the conclusion. This happens very often in scientific fields in which correlations between phenomena are observed, but causation cannot be definitively established.
The above example is what is known as a strong inductive argument. It means that there is virtually no possibility of having true premises and a false conclusion, though the possibility does exist. One makes a weak inductive argument, on the other hand, when an individual attempts to make the case that phenomena are linked in some way without ample sampling or diligent observation. Here is an example:
This argument is inductively weak even if the two premises are true. This is because rock songs can have a variety of time signatures, as there is no necessary time signature that a song must have for it to be considered a rock song. The reasoning jumps from one to all. The first example, on the other hand, jumps from every instance in the past to every instance period.
This strikes to the heart of what determines the strength of an inductive argument. A strong inductive argument will present multiple, convincing examples in order to establish that it is not presenting a fluke or a series of flukes. A weak inductive argument will not do this.
For writers, this is something to remember. We are usually making inductive arguments when we write. It is imperative that we remember to always try to make the strongest inductive arguments possible in order to present our readers with convincing material.
Using inductive reasoning in these types of essays allows you to present information to keep the audience interested. Including evidence and examples along the way encourages readers to keep reading in order to learn about each part of the story and enjoy the journey as the tale unfolds.
Based on the amounts of food students have on their trays and how they pay for their meals, you might use inductive reasoning to conclude that prepaid meal cards encourage students to spend more frivolously (and eat more food).
Based on which group of students viewed and snapped pics of the poster more, you might use inductive reasoning to conclude that seniors are more likely than first-year students to volunteer. Or you might conclude that seniors are more likely than first-year students to be animal lovers.
Learning new stuff is always cause for celebration. But earning an awesome grade on your paper because you now understand the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning is even greater cause for celebration!
Finally, learners need guidance. Inductive learning is a purposeful activity. Research has shown that simply presenting representative examples of a category does not lead to knowledge of what makes that category. Learners must be conscious and deliberate of the task they are attempting to achieve: to find commonalities. The instructor can assist in designing an activity with an explicit task and in utilizing debriefing questions that surface the general principles.
Shemwell, J. T., Chase, C. C., & Schwartz, D. L. (2015). Seeking the general explanation: A test of inductive activities for learning and transfer. Journal of research in science teaching, 52(1), 58-83.
Inductive reasoning is another form of logical reasoning commonly found in essays. With inductive reasoning, you use specific details or examples to form a general claim. Let's say you observe a classmate carrying a large instrument case, talking about going to rehearsals, and wearing the school's band t-shirt. Using inductive reasoning, you would use these specific details to form the claim that your classmate is in the school band.
Inductive reasoning is common in academic writing, especially scientific writing. You use inductive reasoning when you want to discuss patterns you observed and form a general claim based on this evidence. For example, scientists conduct clinical experiments on new medical drugs in a trial group. Based on these results, they need to make generalizations on how this drug will affect the general population to argue if the drug is effective.
Because inductive reasoning relies on generalizations, it is easier to have a faulty claim because you do not have enough evidence. Let's say you want to argue in an essay that all schools should decrease athletic funding. You argue that funding sports is a waste of money because you observed your school funds sports programs, and the teams always lose. This would be an example of bad inductive reasoning because your experience does not support the claim that all schools should decrease funding. Not all school teams lose their games. Observations and generalizations can help you make logical arguments, but be careful that you have sufficient and correct evidence.