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Video Recording Terminology ((EXCLUSIVE))

Audio/Visual Script A dual column screenplay with video description on the left and audio and dialogue on the right, used in advertising, corporate videos, documentaries and training films.

Video Recording Terminology

Double-System Sound Sound and picture on separate transports. This refers to the normal methodology of recording the picture on a camera while recording sound of a separate magnetic tape recorder. (Film)

Edit Decision List (EDL) The list of SMPTE codes, in footage and frames, and including instructions for fades, dissolves and other special effects which corresponds to all the segments that the editor of a film or videotape production has decided to use in the final cut. Used mostly in the old days of linear editing. Editing from offline to online editing.

Sync Beep (sync tone) In double system shooting with video cameras, an audio tone is fed into an audio recorder at the same time that the sound is picked up on the camera microphone. The beep from the camera mic is later aligned with the beep tone from the audio recorder to achieve synchronization of the sound to the picture.

Time Base Signal A signal recorded on the edge of film in a camera to match a signal recorded on a magnetic recording which is used as a fast means of synchronizing film and sound workprints.

Time Code A coded signal generated by a camera or separate device giving information about such things as frame number or time of recording. This information can be used in post production to log the shots, organize the video clips, etc.

This glossary defines terms that are used in the document "Defining Video Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety", developed by the Video Quality in Public Safety (VQIPS) Working Group. It contains terminology and explanations of concepts relevant to the video industry. The purpose of the glossary is to inform the reader of commonly used vocabulary terms in the video domain. This glossary was compiled from various industry sources.

Shot: All video is made up of shots.A shot is basically from when you press record to when you stop recording. Like theindividual photos which make up an album, the shots get put together to make a video.

Analog recording A recording in which continuous magnetic signals are written to the tape that are representations of the voltage signals coming from the recording of the video camera or microphone. Analog signals stored on tape deteriorate with each copy or generation; in contrast see digital.

Analog video A system of recording video images that employs continuously varying waveforms to encode brightness, color and the timing information necessary to reproduce a moving image.

Archival format A video format that provides reliable playback, without information loss. The format should be a current (as opposed to obsolescent) professional one supported by the industry. At present archival video material is typically stored on magnetic tape however in the near future computer-based storage is likely to become an option for archives. The advantage of uncompressed digital formats over analog formats is that they can be copied without generational loss. For this reason many archives are using digital formats for creating their archival masters. Ideally these formats should be uncompressed, component formats; however, for practical and cost reasons for Suitable archival formats will change as older formats become obsolete and are no longer supported. Ideally, archival master material is transferred onto new stock every 5-7 years and at this point a decision should be made about whether it is necessary to move to a new format as well. An archival format is therefore one that can be migrated onto new stock and new formats without the loss or distortion of information.

Artifact An undesirable picture element in a video image, which may naturally occur in the recording process and must be eliminated in order to achieve a high quality image. Most common artifacts are cross-color and cross-luminance. Not to be confused with artifact as a cultural product.

Baking A process of gently heating damaged videotape in an oven with controlled relative humidity in order to enable playback. As magnetic tape deteriorates the polymer of the binder deteriorates by hydrolysis, resulting in what is typically called sticky shed. Archivists have reported success in baking tapes that are suffering severe sticky shed; however, to date the scientific research has not been done to explain this. The temperature and humidity of the oven must be tightly controlled, as does the time for which a tape is baked. This process is not recommended except in extreme circumstances, as there is a suggestion that it will ultimately speed up the deterioration of the tape, although it might enable playback for remastering. There is unfortunately very little research in this area.

Bit rate The amount of data transported in a given amount of time, usually defined in Mega (Million) bits per second (Mbps). Bit rate is one way to define the amount of compression used on a video signal.

Black, or Color Black, Blackburst A composite color video signal comprised of composite sync, reference burst and a black video signal which is usually at a level of 7.5 IRE (0.05V) above the blanking level. Also refers to fade-to-black between scenes.

Blanking level Also known as pedestal, the level of a video signal, which separates the range that contains the picture information from the range that contains the synchronizing information.

Blooming The defocusing of regions of a picture where brightness is excessive. Also refers to adjusting the white levels, on video monitors, to the point of leaving gray and becoming white.

Byte A multi-digit binary number is called a word. A word of 8 binary digits or bits is called a byte. The amount of data that can be moved over time is expressed as MBps (Megabytes per second) or KBps (Kilobytes per second). A kilobyte of memory contains 1024 bytes, one megabyte contains 1024 kilobytes and a gigabyte contains 1024 megabytes. These concepts are essential to understanding issues relating to the storage and format choices of digital materials as well as the terminology surrounding the measurement of errors.

Chroma crawl An artifact of encoded video also known as dot crawl or cross-luminance. Occurs in the video picture around the edges of highly saturated colors as a continuous series of crawling dots and is a result of color information being confused as luminance information by the decoder circuits.

Component video An unencoded video signal in which luminance (black and white) and chrominance (color) are transmitted as separate components, as such requires greater bandwidth than composite video. Component analog video consists of three primary color signals (RGB) that together convey all necessary picture information.

Composite video A mixed encoded signal combining luminance (black and white), chrominance (color), blankingsyncNTSC, PAL, subcarrier to the luminance signal of approximately 3.58MHz in NTSC and 4.43 MHz in PAL. pulses and color burst, that includes horizontal or vertical synchronizing information, using one of the coding standards:

A starting point for a conservator is therefore to provide a full description of the work of art or artifact being considered. Conservators are responsible for documenting changes that occur, decisions made about treatment or care and subsequent evaluation of such decisions. The relevant agents of change are dependent on the nature of the work of art or artifact being considered. Different types of artifacts will have different vulnerabilities to change and therefore different vocabularies of risk. For example, in the case of videotape we may be concerned about the impact of environmental factors such as temperature and humidity that increase the rate of deterioration or the obsolescence of a particular.

Crosstalk An undesired signal interfering with the desired signal, and usually caused by unintentional capacitive (AC) coupling. Can result in several types of picture distortion, mistracking, and/or noisy picture. Also refers to signal interference from one part of videotape to another.

Deterioration The degradation of videotape, most typically with the binder, which is responsible for holding the magnetic particles on the tape and facilitating tape transport. If the binder loses integrity - through softening, embrittlement, loss of cohesiveness, or loss of lubrication - the tape may become unplayable. Sticky tape and sticky shed are commonly used terms to describe the phenomenon associated with deterioration of the magnetic tape binder. See image.

Dropout Momentary signal loss of video or audio during playback on a tape machine, and caused by momentary loss of tape contact with the playback head, tape head clog, flaws in the tape or other features that cause an increase in the head-to-tape spacing. Dropout can also be cause by missing magnetic material. Video dropout generally appears as a white spot or streak on the video monitor. When several video dropouts occur per frame, the TV monitor will appear snowy. The frequent appearance of dropout on playback is an indication that the tape or recorder is contaminated with debris and /or that tape binder is deteriorating.

DVD Abbreviation for Digital Versatile Disc. There are a number of different types of DVD. At the time of writing these include DVD-R, DVD-Rom, DVD-RAM, DVD+RW, DVD-R/W. DVD is not a suitable archival format for video mainly because it uses a lossy form of compression - MPEG2. It is also a format that is likely to see rapid changes in technology and therefore the risk of speedy obsolescence is high. DVDs are made up of a reflective aluminum layer, a polycarbonate substrate, a dye layer and a clear lacquer. The aluminum layer is highly susceptible to pollution and the lacquer layer does not sufficiently protect the aluminum layer to prevent oxidation. Where the DVD is double-sided the two sides are bonded using an adhesive. The adhesive have not been subjected to accelerated aging tests by the manufacturers and there is little data on their life expectancy. A DVD is the same diameter as a CD (120cm) but cannot be read by the same equipment. DVD and CD both record data by encoding it as tiny pits in tracks that correspond to the zeros and ones of binary digits. The pits are read by laser and played back. DVD is able to store more data by making the pits smaller and the tracks closer together and employing the compression system MPEG II. Many artists use DVD-R as an exhibition format and this has replaced laser disc as a popular display format for many museums and galleries. However, because of the way the data is encoded frame-accurate control cannot be achieved by referencing the picture content as it can with laser disc. Where external control is needed for display it is important to be clear of any specific requirements of the control system before having the disc(s) made. 041b061a72


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